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Drug Names #5

πŸ’Š Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of different cancers. Its name tells you that it is an isomer of a platinum-containing compound. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Maalox is used to treat heartburn, acid indigestion, sour stomach, and upset stomach. The name is an acronym that refers to the solution’s compositional elements: MAgnesium and ALuminum Oxide.⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Sonata is the brand name of Zaleplon, a sedative used to treat insomnia. The prefix Sona means ‘sleepy’ in Portuguese to help you remember its indication. ⁠

Drug Names #5

Drug Names #4

πŸ’Š Bactroban is the brand name of mupirocin, an antibiotic ointment that works to inhibit the growth of bacteria, hence the name ‘ban bacteria’ or Bactroban. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Emend is the brand name of aprepitant, an anti-nausea medication indicated to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. The name emend has the components of ‘end emesis’ in it. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Morphine is an opioid pain medication. The drug was named after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams because in addition to its long-lasting analgesic effects, it would also induce sleep. ⁠

Drug Names #4

Drug Names #6

πŸ’Š Premarin is an estrogen-replacement drug prescribed for the treatment of menopause. It is made from horse urine noted by the drug’s name Premarin which is short for ‘PREgnant MARes’ urINe’. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Ursodiol‘s active chemical, ursodeoxycholic acid, is one of the acids found in bear bile that has been shown to be effective in treating gallstones. Since the 1950s, the drug has been produced synthetically.⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Forfivo is the brand name of the once-daily bupropion 450 mg formulation. It is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). The brand name hints at its dosing ‘four-five-O’ for 450 mg. ⁠ ⁠

Drug Names #6

Calcium Channel Blockers

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are used in the treatment of many cardiovascular conditions. They are divided into subclasses, non-dihydropyridines and dihydropyridines. The non-dihydropyridine CCBs cause less vasodilation and more cardiac depression than dihydropyridine CCBs (hence why they are not recommended in decompensated heart failure). They cause reductions in heart rate and contractility. Dihydropyridine CCBs have more vascular selectivity and fewer cardiac effects. They are indicated in the treatment of hypertension and angina. They do not suppress AV conduction or the SA node automaticity.

Calcium Channel Blockers

Hypernatremia, Signs & Symptoms of

πŸ–‡οΈ High levels of sodium can lead to a condition called hypernatremia, where the serum sodium concentration > 145 mEq/L (> 145 mmol/L). ⁠ ⁠ πŸ–‡οΈ Sodium is a dominant cation in extracellular fluid and necessary for the maintenance of intravascular volume. When there is a large increase in sodium in the serum, the signs and symptoms often relate to fluids as you can see with today’s mnemonic.⁠ ⁠ πŸ–‡οΈ The human body maintains sodium and water homeostasis by concentrating the urine secondary to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and increased fluid intake by a powerful thirst response.⁠

Hypernatremia, Signs & Symptoms of

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor Side Effects

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MOA) are a class of antidepressants that includes Isocarboxazide (Marplan), Phenelzine (Nardil), Tranylcypromine (Parnate), and Selegiline (Emsam). ⁠ ⁠ MAO inhibitors are prone to drug interactions that inhibit its breakdown and could lead to hypertensive crisis, serotonin syndrome, or increased psychosis.⁠ ⁠ ⭐ Patients taking MAO inhibitors must avoid tyramine-rich foods, including aged cheese, pickled herring, yeast extract, air-dried meats, sauerkraut, soy sauce, fava beans, and some red wines and beers as it can precipitate hypertensive crisis. Foods can become high in tyramine when they have been aged, fermented, pickled, or smoked.⁠

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor Side Effects

Morphine Side Effects

πŸ’Š Morphine is considered the classic opioid analgesic with which other painkillers are compared. Like other medications in this class, morphine has an affinity for delta, kappa, and mu-opioid receptors.⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š This drug produces the majority of its analgesic effects by binding to the mu-opioid receptor within the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Morphine can potentially be a lethal medication when not used properly. It causes a host of symptoms related to depression of the CNS. Severe respiratory depression is the most feared complication of morphine in cases of overdose. Immediate injection of naloxone is required to reverse the effects of morphine.⁠

Morphine Side Effects

Proton Pump Inhibitors

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the top 200 drugs prescribed (sometimes over-prescribed πŸ˜”) and are the strongest medications used to treat stomach acid disorders such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or peptic ulcers. ⁠⠀
The generics in this class all end in “prazole”, however, if you pay close attention, the brand names of these drugs also hint at what they do. See below for some examples:⁠⠀
πŸ’Š Prilosec (omeprazole): Pr (short for proton), lo (low), sec (secretions) meaning lowered secretions of protons (acid)⁠⠀
πŸ’Š Aciphex (rabeprazole): aci (acid), phex (fix) which means it can help fix acid problems⁠⠀
πŸ’Š Prevacid (lansoprazole): Prev (prevent) acid ⁠⠀
πŸ’Š Protonix (pantoprazole): Proton (acid) nix (get rid of) or in other words nix protons⁠⠀

Proton Pump Inhibitors

Respiratory Fluoroquinolones

Fluoroquinolones are highly effective antibiotics with many advantageous pharmacokinetic properties including high oral bioavailability, large volume of distribution, and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Some antibiotics in this class include moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. ⁠⠀ ⁠⠀ πŸ’Š Fluoroquinolones act by inhibiting two enzymes involved in bacterial DNA synthesis, both of which are DNA topoisomerases that human cells lack and that are essential for bacterial DNA replication, thereby enabling these agents to be both specific and bactericidal.⁠⠀

Respiratory Fluoroquinolones

SNRI Side Effects

Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressants that work by blocking serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake in the synapse (as the name suggests). ⁠ ⁠ πŸ—’οΈ It is important to educate patients that there is an increased risk of suicidal thinking and behavior in children, adolescents, and young adults during the first few months of therapy and it may take up to 8 weeks before therapeutic effects are recognized.⁠

SNRI Side Effects

SSRIs Side Effects

πŸ’Š Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) work by inhibiting 5-HT reuptake by the presynaptic cleft, thus increasing serotonin levels in the synapse.⁠ It is commonly used to treat depression, a condition thought to be linked to low levels of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. ⁠ ⁠ ⭐ As you can see, this mnemonic is similar to the mnemonic on the side effects of SNRIs. Since they both block serotonin reuptake, they exhibit very similar side effect profiles except SNRIs can also impact blood pressure (increase or decrease) due to the norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. SSRIs do not affect blood pressure. ⁠ ⁠ In addition, SSRIs can cause weight gain in adults on long-term therapy, while SNRIs cause less of this long-term weight gain and are more associated with weight loss. ⁠

SSRIs Side Effects