Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. 🔺 They play a role in conditions such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, and perforation of the bowel so it is important to make sure we have adequate anaerobic coverage when empirically treating these infections. 💊 There are several antibiotics that cover anaerobes in addition to other bacteria.
Fluoroquinolones are highly effective antibiotics with many advantageous pharmacokinetic properties including high oral bioavailability, large volume of distribution, and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Some antibiotics in this class include moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. ⠀ ⠀ 💊 Fluoroquinolones act by inhibiting two enzymes involved in bacterial DNA synthesis, both of which are DNA topoisomerases that human cells lack and that are essential for bacterial DNA replication, thereby enabling these agents to be both specific and bactericidal.⠀