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Antibiotics that cover anaerobes

Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ”Ί They play a role in conditions such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, and perforation of the bowel so it is important to make sure we have adequate anaerobic coverage when empirically treating these infections. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š There are several antibiotics that cover anaerobes in addition to other bacteria. ⁠

Antibiotics that cover anaerobes

Antibiotics that cover Pseudomonas

Pseudomonas is a type of bacteria (bug) that is found commonly in soil and in water. Of the many different types of Pseudomonas, the one that most often causes infections in humans is called Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can cause infections in the blood, lungs (pneumonia), or other parts of the body after surgery.⁠ ⁠ πŸ”Ί Pseudomonas aeruginosa treatment has become increasingly difficult as bacteria become more resistant to the available antibiotics on the market. If they develop resistance to several types of antibiotics, these germs can become multidrug-resistant.⁠

Antibiotics that cover Pseudomonas

Antituberculosis Agents

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (aerobic, non-spore forming bacillus). Active TB is transmitted by aerosolized droplets (sneezing, coughing, talking, etc.) and is highly contagious. ⁠ ⁠ Active disease treatment is divided into two treatment phases, initial and continuation. To avoid treatment failure due to resistance, the preferred initial treatment consists of a 4 drug regimen of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol (RIPE). ⁠ ⁠ These 4 drugs are taken for about 8 weeks during the initiation phase. In the continuation phase, the regimen is narrowed based on susceptibilities.

Antituberculosis Agents

Beta-1 Cardioselective Beta-Blockers

❀️ Cardioselective beta-blockers work on the beta-1 receptors. Beta-1 receptors primarily are found in cardiac tissues whereas beta-2 receptors are located in the lungs (remember: 1 heart, two lungs). ⁠ ⁠ ❀️ Cardioselective beta-blockers exert their effect by binding to the beta-1 receptor sites selectively and inhibiting the action of epinephrine and norepinephrine on these sites. They are often preferred in patients with respiratory disease as they are less likely to cause constriction of airways or peripheral vasculature.⁠

Beta-1 Cardioselective Beta-Blockers

Cholinergic Muscarinic Agonist Effects

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Cholinergic muscarinic agonists are drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors and increase the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system. They are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder, and eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ‘‰πŸ» Direct cholinergic agonists work by resisting acetylcholinesterase, thus preventing its breakdown. Drugs in this class include bethanechol, carbachol, and methacholine, and pilocarpine.⁠ ⁠ πŸ‘‰πŸ» Indirect cholinergic agonists work by inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase enzyme preventing the degradation of acetylcholine. Drugs in this class include neostigmine, physostigmine, galantamine, donepezil, and rivastigmine. ⁠

Cholinergic Muscarinic Agonist Effects

CYP450 Enzymes, Major Inducers of

πŸ‘‰πŸ» Drugs that are inducers increase CYP450 enzyme activity by increasing enzyme synthesis. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ‘‰πŸ» A drug also may be metabolized by the same CYP450 enzyme that it induces. Carbamazepine (Tegretol), a potent enzyme inducer, must be initiated at a low dose and then increased at weekly intervals as its half-life gradually decreases over time.⁠

CYP450 Enzymes, Major Inducers of

CYP450 Enzymes, Major Inhibitors of

The CYP450 enzymes are essential for the production of numerous agents including cholesterol and steroids. Additionally, these enzymes are necessary for the detoxification of foreign chemicals and the metabolism of drugs.⁠ ⁠ Drugs that are CYP450 inhibitors block the metabolic activity of one or more of the CYP450 enzymes. The extent to which an inhibitor affects the metabolism of a drug depends upon factors such as the dose and the ability of the inhibitor to bind to the enzyme.⁠

CYP450 Enzymes, Major Inhibitors of

Drug Names #1

There are a plethora of drug facts to memorize for school, but it is definitely helpful when their names hint at what they are used for, their mechanism of action, frequency, or duration. ⁠ πŸ’Š Lasix: short for ‘last six hours’ because of the 6-hour duration of action. Try not to administer this diuretic to patients after 4 pm to decrease nighttime awakenings.⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Macrobid: this formulation of Macrodantin is given BID (twice a day). Macrodantin is recommended to be given 4 times a day. Ensure you are using the right formulation for the right frequency. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Protonix: Protonix belongs to a class of proton pump inhibitors. Its brand name, Protonix, tells you that it is used to ‘nix protons’ or acid and is used to treat GERD and acid-reflux disorders. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Lopressor: brand name for metoprolol, a beta-blocker that is used for high blood pressure. The brand name, lo-pressor, tells you that it is used to help ‘lower pressures’. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Flonase: brand name for fluticasone nasal spray. Its name, Flonase, sounds an awful lot like ‘flow nasal’ which tells you that it is used to treat allergies that commonly cause nasal congestion. ⁠ πŸ’Š Ambien: AM is the sig for morning and Bien means good in Spanish. It is a sleeping aid medication that translates into ‘good morning’. ⁠

Drug Names #1

Drug Names #2

Part 2 of It’s all in the name! Hope these mnemonics make it easier for you to memorize these medications. ⁠ πŸ’Š Flomax: brand name for tamsulosin, a medication used to treat urinary retention or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Its name tells you that it is used to ‘maximize flow’. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Lunesta: a sleep aid medication whose root word Luna means moon in Latin. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Xarelto: brand name for rivaroxaban, an oral anticoagulant. Its name hints at its mechanism of action, inhibiting factor Xa in the clotting cascade. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Fosamax: brand name for alendronic acid, it is a medication used to treat osteoporosis or bone weakening. Its name means os = bone, and max = great in Latin. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Prevacid: brand name for lansoprazole, it belongs to a class of proton pump inhibitors. Its name tells you that it ‘prevents acid’ and is used to treat GERD and acid-reflux disorders. ⁠ ⁠ πŸ’Š Glucophage: brand name for metformin. It is a medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. Its name derives from the Greek words gluco= glucose and phage = eat or consume. ⁠This helps you remember metformin’s mechanism of action is to increase uptake of glucose by cells in the body to be used as energy (or in other words increase insulin sensitivity). ⁠

Drug Names #2