Grab our best-selling pharmacology coloring book!


Diuretic Classes

There are 5 main types of diuretic classes with different mechanisms of action, site of action, and side effect profiles. ⁠ ⁠ 1) Loop diuretics work on the loop of Henle (as the name implies)⁠ 2) Osmotic diuretic work on the glomerulus⁠ 3) Thiazides work on distal convoluted tubule⁠ 4) Carbonic anhydrase work on the proximal tubule⁠ 5) Potassium-sparing diuretics (aldosterone antagonists and sodium channel blockers) work on the distal convoluted tubule⁠ and collecting ducts

Diuretic Classes Read More »

Hypernatremia, Signs & Symptoms of

🖇️ High levels of sodium can lead to a condition called hypernatremia, where the serum sodium concentration > 145 mEq/L (> 145 mmol/L). ⁠ ⁠ 🖇️ Sodium is a dominant cation in extracellular fluid and necessary for the maintenance of intravascular volume. When there is a large increase in sodium in the serum, the signs and symptoms often relate to fluids as you can see with today’s mnemonic.⁠ ⁠ 🖇️ The human body maintains sodium and water homeostasis by concentrating the urine secondary to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and increased fluid intake by a powerful thirst response.⁠

Hypernatremia, Signs & Symptoms of Read More »

Valproate Side Effects

💊 Valproic acid is used in seizures, bipolar disorder, and migraine prophylaxis. It works by increasing the availability of gamma (y)-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter. ⁠ ⁠ 🖇️ Divalproex sodium is a compound of sodium valproate and valproic acid. Divalproex dissociates to valproate in the GI tract. ⁠ ⁠ 🖇️ Use special caution with the combination of valproic acid and lamotrigine due to the risk of serious rash called Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. ⁠

Valproate Side Effects Read More »