Diuretic Classes

There are 5 main types of diuretic classes with different mechanisms of action, site of action, and side effect profiles. ⁠ ⁠ 1) Loop diuretics work on the loop of Henle (as the name implies)⁠ 2) Osmotic diuretic work on the glomerulus⁠ 3) Thiazides work on distal convoluted tubule⁠ 4) Carbonic anhydrase work on the proximal tubule⁠ 5) Potassium-sparing diuretics (aldosterone antagonists and sodium channel blockers) work on the distal convoluted tubule⁠ and collecting ducts

Diuretics Sites of Action

Diuretics work to enhance sodium and water excretion through 4 main sites on the nephron.

1– Proximal convoluted tubule: Mannitol and acetazolamide (extends into the descending loop of Henle)

2– Ascending loop of Henle: loop diuretics

3– Distal convoluted tubule: thiazides

4– Collecting ducts: Potassium-sparing diuretic (e.g., spironolactone and triamterene)